Sex differences are of high scientific and societal interest because of their prominence in behavior of humans and nonhuman species. This work is highly significant because it studies a very large population of 949 youths (8–22 y, 428 males and 521 females) using the diffusion-based structural connectome of the brain, identifying novel sex differences. The results establish that male brains are optimized for intrahemispheric and female brains for interhemispheric communication. The developmental trajectories of males and females separate at a young age, demonstrating wide differences during adolescence and adulthood. The observations suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.
See image: female brains (orange) aren’t so much separated at the hemisphere, but they do divide front and back more sharply than the male (blue) brains.
Using “diffusion-based structural connectome” they found there are developmental differences that increase with time. During adolescence, the differences become clear and they grow in adulthood.
In all supratentorial regions (those above tentorium cerebelli), males had more "cables" inside each hemisphere and a higher modularity and transitivity. On the contrary, females had more "cables" in between the two hemispheres and a higher cross-module participation.
Men’s nerve connections give them a stronger link to parts of the brain that control perception and action.
Consider "facilitating communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes" as a euphemism for less able to separate rational reasoning from emotions, but this gives women a better link to intuition, as the stereotypes go…
In summary, men and women are hard-wired to understand and act on things differently. In regards to social issues such as female underrepresentation in the STEM fields there should be more consideration of biological causes, such as these cognitive differences among the sexes.
If you scanned a trans* person’s brain, would the scan look more like their chromosomes would dictate, or more like how they identify?